atom feed3 messages in edu.oswego.cs.concurrency-interest[concurrency-interest] ConcurrentHash...
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Doug LeaJun 6, 2012 9:19 am 
Nathan ReynoldsJun 7, 2012 9:06 am 
Doug LeaJun 8, 2012 6:17 am 
Subject:[concurrency-interest] ConcurrentHashMapV8 improvements
From:Doug Lea (
Date:Jun 6, 2012 9:19:19 am

Finally acting on an old idea, I committed an update to ConcurrentHashMap (currently only the one in our jdk8 preview package, as jsr166e.ConcurrentHashMap8) that much more gracefully handles maps that are huge or have many keys with colliding hash codes. Internally, it uses tree-map-like structures to maintain bins containing more nodes than would be expected under ideal random key distributions over ideal numbers of bins.

Among other things, this provides graceful (O log(N)) degradation when there are more than about a billion elements (which run out of 32bit hash resolution and array bound limits). However, the map can only do so if keys are Comparable, which is true of most keys in practice -- Strings, Longs, etc. Without relying on Comparable, we can't otherwise magically find any other means to further resolve and organize keys after running out of bits, so performance for non-Comparable keys is unaffected/unimproved.

This also provides a mechanism for coping with hostile usages in which many keys (Strings in particular) are somehow constructed to have the same hashCode, which can lead to algorithmic denial of service attacks (because of linear-time bin searches) if code using the map don't screen external inputs. The overflow-tree-based strategy here is an alternative approach to adding secondary randomly-seeded hash code methods ("hash32") to class String, as has been committed recently to OpenJDK. But ConcurrentHashMap8 doesn't doesn't rely on this.

The use of overflow-bins also allowed a few other minor speedups in more typical usages. A few more small improvements are still left unfinished for now. (I'll be traveling and/or otherwise committed for most of the next few weeks.)

Links: jsr166e.jar: source:

Please give this a try and let me know about experiences.